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Research Findings: References

by P.R.I.D.E. Team

The following is part of a series detailing research findings compiled by the P.R.I.D.E. Team. 
For more information, please visit our research page.

  • Allen, B. A., & Butler, L. (1996). The effects of music and movement opportunity on the analogical reasoning performance of African American and White school children: A preliminary study. Journal of Black Psychology, 22(3), 316-328.
  • Caughy, M. O. B., O’Campo, P. J., Randolph, S. M., & Nickerson, K. (2002). The influence of racial socialization practices on the cognitive and behavioral competence of African American preschoolers. Child development, 73(5), 1611-1625.
  • Clark, K.B. & Clark, M. P. (1947). Racial identification and racial preference in Negro children. In T. M. Newcomb and E. L. Hartley (Eds.), Readings in social psychology. New York: Holt, 169–178.
  • Edwards, A.L. (2017) Teaching African American Children about Race: Fostering Intergroup Relationships through Parental Racial Socialization. Journal of Child and Adolescent Behavior. 5(329), 2-3.
  • Gilliam, W. S., Maupin, A. N., Reyes, C. R., Accavitti, M., & Shic, F. (2016). Do early educators’ implicit biases regarding sex and race relate to behavior expectations and recommendations of preschool expulsions and suspensions. Research Study Brief. Yale University, Yale Child Study Center, New Haven, CT.
  • Han, H. S., West-Olatunji, C., & Thomas, M. S. (2011). Use of Racial Identity Development Theory to Explore Cultural Competence among Early Childhood Educators. SRATE Journal, 20 (1), 1-11.
  • Hanley, M. S., & Noblit, G. W. (2009). Cultural responsiveness, racial identity and academic success: A review of literature.
  • Hirschfeld, L. A. (2012). Seven myths of race and the young child. Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race, 9(1), 17-39.
  • Husband, T. (2012). “I don’t see color”: Challenging assumptions about discussing race with young children. Early Childhood Education Journal, 39(6), 365-371.
  • Kelly, D. J., Quinn, P. C., Slater, A. M., Lee, K., Gibson, A., Smith, M., … & Pascalis, O. (2005). Three‐month‐olds, but not newborns, prefer own‐race faces. Developmental science, 8(6).
  • Leonardo, Z., & Boas, E. (2013). Other kids’ teachers: What children of color learn from white women and what this says about race, whiteness, and gender. Handbook of critical race theory in education, 313-324.
  • Minor, E. C. (2014). Racial differences in teacher perception of student ability. Teachers College Record, 116(10).
  • Pahlke, E., Bigler, R. S., & Suizzo, M. A. (2012). Relations between colorblind socialization and children’s racial bias: Evidence from European American mothers and their preschool children. Child development, 83(4), 1164-1179.
  • Quintana, S. M. (1998). Children’s developmental understanding of ethnicity and race. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 7(1), 27-45.
  • Rivas‐Drake, D., Seaton, E. K., Markstrom, C., Quintana, S., Syed, M., Lee, R. M., … & Ethnic and Racial Identity in the 21st Century Study Group. (2014). Ethnic and racial identity in adolescence: Implications for psychosocial, academic, and health outcomes. Child development, 85(1), 40-57.
  • Spencer, M. B. (1983). Children’s cultural values and parental child rearing strategies. Developmental Review, 3(4), 351-370.
  • Tatum, B. D. (1997). “Why are all the Black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?” And other conversations about race. New York, NY: Basic Books.
  • Wang, M. T., & Huguley, J. P. (2012). Parental racial socialization as a moderator of the effects of racial discrimination on educational success among African American adolescents. Child Development, 83(5), 1716-1731.
  • Winkler, E. N. (2009). Children are not colorblind: How young children learn race. PACE: Practical Approaches for Continuing Education, 3(3), 1-8.
  • York, S. (2016). Roots and wings: Affirming culture and preventing bias in early childhood. Redleaf Press.

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